1. Social/Emotional Milestones:
As children grow, they should become increasingly able to build and maintain relationships with peers and adults as well as demonstrate self-regulation and independence in their lives. Some of the key social/emotional milestones include recognizing emotions in oneself and others, developing a sense of empathy, understanding the consequences of one’s actions, and managing feelings of stress and anxiety.
2. Language/Communication Milestones:
Children should be able to express their needs and understand the communication of those around them. This includes understanding signs and symbols, being able to use basic language to explain what they need or want, following directions and instructions, engaging in conversations with others, and becoming increasingly proficient with reading books.
3. Cognitive Milestones (learning, thinking, problem-solving):
As children develop their cognitive abilities they learn how to think more independently and creatively as well as apply what they’ve learned in practical ways. Milestones include recognizing patterns; using trial-and-error strategies for problem solving; mastering basic math and science concepts; understanding cause-and-effect relationships; beginning to understand symbols, metaphors, and abstract concepts.
4. Movement/Physical Development Milestones:
Children need physical activity in order to promote healthy development and growth as well as foster cognitive development. Milestones related to movement include gross motor skills such as walking, running, climbing stairs, understanding spatial relationships, and fine motor skills such as writing or drawing with a pencil.