1. Ubuntu Security.
Ubuntu is a secure operating system by default. It has a built-in firewall and provides access control to software, files, and services. It also includes an application security framework that helps keep users safe from malicious software, as well as the ability to encrypt data with encryption keys. Additionally, it features a secure boot, which helps protect against boot-time attacks.
2. Basic Command Line Security.
The command line is a powerful tool that can be used to perform many important system administration tasks. It’s important to understand how to securely use the command line when managing Ubuntu systems. This includes understanding how to use file permissions and ownership, as well as avoiding commands that could potentially compromise security or cause unintended changes on the system.
3. Advanced Ubuntu Security.
Advanced Ubuntu security features include SELinux (Security Enhanced Linux), AppArmor, and Firejail for sandboxing processes from each other in order to mitigate risk from malicious software. Additionally, there are capabilities available for secure remote access such as SSH and VPN.
4. Firewall Configuration.
It is important to configure the built-in firewall of an Ubuntu system to ensure that only authorized access from remote systems and networks is allowed. This includes setting rules for which ports should be open or closed, as well as controlling traffic based on IP address or user authentication.
5. User Management.
Managing users and their access rights can help ensure that only authorized users are able to log in and use system resources. It’s important to create strong passwords, use two-factor authentication, and limit user privileges where possible. Additionally, it’s a good idea to regularly review user accounts and remove inactive ones.
6. Access Control List (ACL) Configuration.
To further enhance security, Access Control Lists (ACLs) can be used to control access to files and directories. This allows granular control over who is able to view or modify data on the system. It’s important to define ACLs for all sensitive data, as well as regularly review them to ensure they are up-to-date.
7. File Permissions and Security Settings.
File permissions and ownership play an important role in setting up a secure Ubuntu system. It’s important to understand how these settings work, and properly configure files across the system so that only authorized users have access to sensitive information. Additionally, it’s good practice to encrypt sensitive files and directories.
8. Auditing and Logging.
Auditing and logging can help maintain visibility into system activity, as well as ensure that any potential security breaches are detected quickly. It’s important to regularly review logs for suspicious activity, and also maintain an audit trail of changes made to the system over time.
9. Security Patches, Updates, and Upgrades.
It is important to keep all software on Ubuntu systems up-to-date in order to protect against the latest threats. This includes patching vulnerabilities in existing software, updating applications with new features or fixes, and upgrading core components when necessary.
10. Security Monitoring and Reporting.
Security monitoring and reporting are essential for maintaining a secure system. It’s important to monitor log files, audit trails, user accounts, and other components of the system in order to detect suspicious behavior. Additionally, regular security reports should be generated to ensure that all security measures are effective.