1. The ability to read accurately and fluently:
Accurate and fluent reading is the ability to read quickly, with comprehension, and without errors. To attain accurate and fluent reading, one must have an understanding of letter-sound relationships, a knowledge of words and their meanings, as well as an awareness of the structure of texts. It involves the automatic recognition of words, phrases, and concepts. Common indicators to evaluate this skill include accuracy rate (number of errors/words read), and fluency rate (number of words read per second).
2. The ability to understand what is read:
Understanding the meaning of texts involves being able to draw conclusions from the material, make predictions, recognize cause and effect relationships, differentiate between fact and opinion, analyze characters’ motives and feelings, integrate information from multiple sources, and identify main ideas and supporting details. Reading comprehension can be evaluated by administering tests that assess students’ ability to recall information and demonstrate understanding through writing or speaking activities.
3. The ability to think critically about what is read:
Critical thinking skills in reading involve being able to make connections between the text and the world, recognize bias or persuasion in writing, distinguish between fact and opinion, draw inferences from a text, connect ideas across texts and relate personal experiences with what is read. Critical thinking skills can be evaluated through written responses or verbal discussions that require students to explain their opinions on a given topic.
4. The ability to remember and use information from what is read:
Being able to recall information involves being able to accurately recall facts, details, concepts, and other important pieces of information discussed in the text. This skill encourages readers to closely monitor their understanding of the material as they progress through it. Common evaluation strategies include asking students questions about the reading material or having them summarize key points from the text
5. 5. The ability to write effectively based on material read:
Being able to transition from reading comprehension to writing is an important skill for students to develop. This requires the ability to synthesize and organize information in a cohesive manner, accurately use grammar and mechanics conventions, as well as cite sources properly. Writing assessment tools range from essay questions that require students to analyze their understanding of a text, provide evidence-based arguments or compare different texts.
6. Exposure to a variety of literature from various genres and time periods:
Reading extensively allows readers to gain exposure to different types of literature, providing them with insights into other cultures and eras as well as broadening their knowledge base and perspective on life overall. Examples include books from classic and modern authors, and nonfiction texts from a variety of sources, as well as newspapers, magazines, and online articles.
7. A deep understanding of grammar and usage conventions:
Understanding the rules of language is essential for students to be able to effectively communicate in writing. This involves knowing the proper usage and placement of punctuation, grammar conventions, capitalization, and other mechanics as well as being aware of grammatical terms such as verb tenses, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. Mastery of these concepts can be evaluated through written assessments that require students to apply their knowledge in context.
8. Knowledge of vocabulary words and their definitions:
In order to comprehend text, students must be familiar with the meaning of the words used. This includes knowing words that are specific to a particular topic or genre (e.g., medical terms), as well as words from other areas such as literature and history. Additionally, it requires an understanding of how word choice affects meaning in writing and speaking. A common evaluation strategy for this skill is administering vocabulary tests that assess students’ knowledge of definitions and correct usage.
9. Familiarity with different writing formats (e.g., essays, articles, book reports):
Being able to recognize and use the structure of different writing formats enables students to effectively communicate their ideas in a variety of contexts. Examples include narrative essays, persuasive arguments, informative articles, book reports, and research papers. Assessment tools for this skill involve having students write samples using each type of format as well as providing feedback about their writing style and content.
10. Understanding the principles of standard punctuation and capitalization:
Correct punctuation and capitalization are important for conveying meaning, as well as creating a polished and professional look. Examples include using periods to end sentences, apostrophes to indicate possession or contraction, commas to set off clauses and introductory phrases, semicolons for connecting related independent clauses and colons for introducing explanations or definitions. Also included is knowledge of when capitals should be used within words (e.g., titles) and at the beginning of sentences. Evaluation tools include assessing student-written samples with feedback on mistakes made in accordance with standard conventions. Practice activities can consist of worksheets and exercises that provide reinforcement of these practices.