1. Phonemic Awareness
Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds that makeup words. It is important for students to have a strong phonemic awareness foundation before they begin learning to read. Some activities that can help develop phonemic awareness include singing nursery rhymes, clapping out rhythms, and segmenting words into individual sounds.
2. Phonics Instruction
Phonics instruction helps students learn how letters represent the individual sounds in words. Phonics instruction should be systematic and sequential, teaching students one phonics rule at a time. Activities that can help students learn phonics skills include letter games, word puzzles, and making lists of words that follow a specific phonics pattern.
3. Word Recognition
Word recognition is the ability to read common words quickly and accurately. It is important for students to be able to read common words fluently in order to understand what they are reading. Activities that can help students improve their word recognition skills include reading aloud, testing themselves on flashcards, and reading books at an appropriate level.
Fluency is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. Fluent readers are able to read smoothly and with expression. They do not stop to sound out every word. Activities that can help students improve their fluency include reading aloud, practicing reading passages quickly, and reading books at an appropriate level.
Comprehension is the understanding of what has been read. It is important for students to be able to understand what they are reading in order to learn from it. Activities that can help students improve their comprehension skills include asking questions about what they have read, summarizing stories, and answering questions about the text.