1. Access Control:
Organizations need to have a process in place for granting access to systems and data, and ensuring that only authorized users are able to access information. This includes implementing authentication controls (such as passwords or tokens), and restricting access to the necessary data and systems.
2. Awareness and Training:
It is important for organizations to ensure that their employees are aware of the risks associated with cyber attacks, and how to properly protect themselves and the organization's data. Employees should also be trained on how to spot suspicious activity, and what steps to take if they encounter a potential security threat.
3. Auditing and Accountability:
Organizations should have a process for auditing their systems regularly, in order to identify any potential vulnerabilities or security breaches. They should also have procedures in place for holding employees accountable for their actions, and for reporting any security incidents.
4. Configuration Management:
Organizations need to have a process for managing the configuration of their systems and devices, in order to ensure that they are configured securely. This includes setting up baseline security settings, tracking changes to the configuration, and testing the security of the configurations.
5. Identification and Authentication:
Organizations need to have a way of identifying which users are accessing their systems and data, as well as verifying the identity of those users. This can be done using usernames and passwords, or through other methods such as biometric authentication.
6. Incident Response:
If an organization experiences a cyber attack or data breach, they need to have a plan in place for responding to the incident. This includes detecting the attack early on, containing the damage, investigating the attack, and recovering from the incident.
Organizations need to have a process for maintaining their systems and devices, including installing updates and patches, monitoring system performance,and performing backups and restores.
8. Media Protection:
Organizations need to take steps to protect their electronic media from unauthorized access or theft. This includes using encryption software to protect data stored on portable devices,and securing physical media such as laptops and hard drives.
9. Personnel Security:
Organizations need to have a process for screening employees before they are hired, and for monitoring their activities while they are employed. They should also have procedures in place for dealing with employee misconduct, including disciplinary action and termination.
10. Physical Protection:
Organizations need to take steps to protect their physical facilities from intruders and unauthorized access. This includes securing entry points, using security cameras and alarms, and controlling access to sensitive areas.
11. Risk Assessment:
Organizations need to assess the risks associated with their systems and data, in order to determine what steps need to be taken to protect them. This includes identifying potential threats, determining the likelihood of those threats occurring, and assessing the impact of a successful attack.
12. Security Assessment:
Organizations should periodically assess the security of their systems and data, in order to identify any weaknesses or vulnerabilities. This can be done through internal or external audits, penetration testing, or other methods.
13. System and Communication Protection:
Organizations need to take steps to protect their systems and communications from being intercepted or tampered with. This includes encrypting data in transit, and using secure protocols for communication.
14. System and Information Integrity:
Organizations need to ensure that their systems and data are accurate and complete, and that they have not been tampered with or corrupted. This can be done through checksums, digital signatures, and other methods.