1. Assess patient’s condition and risk for complications.
Prior to beginning a blood transfusion, it is important for the nurse to assess the patient's condition and any potential risks that may occur. This includes checking their vital signs, discussing any existing medical conditions or medications they are taking, and any allergies that might react to the blood product. It is also important to check for any signs of infection, such as fever, chills, or swelling at the infusion site.
2. Confirm correct patient identity.
In order to ensure that the blood product is delivered to the correct patient, nurses must double check and confirm the patient's identity using two separate forms of identification (e.g., name and date of birth). This helps eliminate errors in transfusion which could lead to serious complications for the patient.
3. Complete all necessary pre-transfusion tests
Before administering a blood transfusion, it is essential that nurses complete all necessary pre-transfusion tests such as crossmatching and titration testing. These tests are performed on the blood product and the patient’s own blood sample to ensure compatibility and reduce the risk of any adverse reactions.
4. Document the results of any laboratory tests performed
It is important for nurses to document all laboratory tests and results in order to keep an accurate record of the patient's condition before and after transfusion. This will help monitor any potential complications or reactions that may arise during or after a transfusion.
5. Verify that the blood product is compatible with the patient’s blood type and crossmatch result. (if available)
Prior to beginning a transfusion, nurses must verify that the blood product is compatible with the patient's individual blood type, based on their crossmatch result if available. This helps to reduce the risk of any adverse reactions that could occur if the wrong blood type is given.
6. Obtain a signed informed consent form from the patient or guardian prior to starting transfusion.
Before beginning a blood transfusion, nurses must obtain a signed informed consent form from the patient or their guardian in order to ensure they understand and agree with the procedure.
7. Review physician order for compatibility and accuracy.
Nurses must review any orders given by the physician to verify accuracy and make sure all tests were completed correctly before administering the transfusion.
8. Label the blood product with patient’s name, date and time of transfusion
Nurses must label each blood product container accurately with the patient's name, date, and time of transfusion. This helps ensure that the correct product is given to the right patient at the right time.
9. Check for any possible complications such as allergic reaction, infection or haemolytic reaction.
In order to reduce risks of adverse reactions during a blood transfusion, nurses must check for allergy history or any existing infections or diseases that could lead to an allergic or haemolytic reaction.
10. Monitor vital signs during and after transfusion to detect any adverse reactions.
Nurses must closely monitor vital signs throughout the entire process of transfusion in order to detect any possible adverse reactions quickly and take appropriate action if necessary.